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Some More News about the 
Destruction oi Louvain 



By 
LEON VAp DER ESSEN 



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SOME MORE NEWS ABOUT THE DESTRUCTION OF 

LOUVAIN 

A short time ago, as a result of false statements appearing in 
Chicago newspapers about Louvain and the atrocities committed in 
Belgium, I felt myself compelled to publish A Statement about the 
Destruction of Louvain and Neighborhood. I incorporated in that 
statement the reports of some of my colleagues, who were either 
victims or eyewitnesses of the outrages committed by the Germans 
at Louvain. 

1. A German resident of Chicago has attacked that statement, 
declaring that I did not give the names of my informants. I there- 
upon cabled to my informants in England and obtained their per- 
mission to give their names. The most important eyewitnesses of 
the destruction of Louvain were Professor Canon L6on Noel, Professor 
L£on Verhelst, and Professor J. Havet. Professor Noel is well known 
through his publications on philosophy and as secretary of the Annales 
de VInstitut mp&rieur de philosophie of Louvain; Professors Verhelst 
and Havet, too, are well-known scholars. Their testimony as eye- 
witnesses of the occurrences at Louvain, is strengthened by their 
standing as scientific men, and, as they were on the spot, their state- 
ments cannot be drawn in question. 

In addition to permitting the use of his name Professor Havet, 
professor of histology in the faculty of medicine at Louvain, addressed 
me the following letter: 

Je ne vois pas.de difficulty bien s6rieuses a ce que vous vous serviez de 
mon nom pour affirmer les faits que j'ai vus, dont j'ai 6t6 le t&noin oculaire et 
auriculaire. 

Encore y aurait-il l'un ou Pautre inconvenient a souffrir, que je suis pr£t 
a le supporter. Car j'ai le courage de mes convictions et il n'y a pas un 
allemand au monde qui puissa me faire dSvier de ce que je crois 6tre le vrai. 
Ainsi done, je puis r6pondre pour les faits que j'ai vus, dont j'ai 6t6 tSmoin. 
Je n'ai pas de haine pour les allemands, malqu£ tout le mal qu'ils nous ont 
fait et nous font encore. J'ai soignS leurs soldats, qui avaient des plaies 
purulentes, avec tout le d6vouement qu'on pouvait y mettre. Quelques uns 
de leurs soldats s'en souviendront longtemps. 

Mais, si je n'ai pas de haine contre eux, si m&me je leur pardonne les 
angoisses que j'ai ressenties pour mes enfants, lors du "bombardement" de 

1 



Louvain, je dois k la v6rit£ de dire que les allemands ont commis k Louvain 
et autour de Louvain des atrocites sans nom, que rien ne justifie. 

Je ne vais pas crier cela sur les toits. Mais quand un homme, cherchant 
des renseignements, m'interroge sur ce que j'ai vu, je ne puis pas ne pas 
lui dire la v6rit& 

C'est d'ailleurs en vain que les allemands croient et font croire qu'il y a 
dans ces histoires horribles des exag&ations et des mensonges. Je comprends 
d'ailleurs leur attitude car moi-m&ne, qui ne suis pas allemand, mais qui con- 
nais les allemands, jamais on ne serait parvenu k me faire croire que les 
allemands auraient pu commettre de pareils actes, si je ne les avais vus de mes 
yeux. 

Le commandant militaire de Louvain lui-m&me, assistant, il y a un mois, 
au d&errement des cadavres enfouis dans le pare de la station, d6plorait les 
massacres inouis commis k Louvain et se demandait comment des gens de si 
bonne instruction pouvaient se laisser aller k des actes semblables. 

v$ Dr. J. Havet 

I append a translation of that letter: 

I see no serious obstacle in the way of your making use of my name in 
support of the things of which I have been a witness — which I have both 
seen and heard. 

Even if there were some inconveniences resulting, I am prepared to 
support my statements. For I have the courage of my convictions and 
there is no German in the world who can make me budge from what I 
believe to be the truth. I can vouch, therefore, for the occurrences of which 
I have been an eyewitness. I have no hatred for the Germans, notwith- 
standing all the evil which they have done and are still doing to us. I have 
cared for their soldiers who suffered from infected wounds with all the 
devotion it was possible to give them. Some of their soldiers will remember 
this for many a day. 

But if I have no hatred for them, if I even pardon them for the anxiety 
I was subjected to on account of my children during the "bombardment" of 
Louvain, I owe it to truth to assert that the Germans have committed 
unspeakable atrocities without justification, both in Louvain and in its 
vicinity. 

I am not purposing to shout this from the housetops. But when anyone 
seeking information questions me as to what I have' seen, I can but tell him 
the truth. 

Moreover, it is useless for the Germans to believe, and to seek to make 
others believe, that these horrible stories include exaggerations and mis- 
statements. I can appreciate their attitude, since I myself, who am no 
German, but who understand the Germans, could never have been brought 
to believe that the Germans were capable of committing such acts if I had 
not seen them with my own eyes. 

The [German] commander of Louvain, who was present some time 
back at the disinterment of the corpses buried in the park in front of the 

2 



station, spoke regretfully of the unheard-of massacres committed at Louvain, 

and wondered how men with such good education could lend themselves to 

the commission of acts of such a nature. 1 

Dr. J. Havbt 

Another of my colleagues, Professor Thoreau, professor of min- 
eralogy, who also was a victim and an eyewitness of the atrocities 
committed at Louvain, and who published the statement of what he 
suffered and what he saw in the Hampshire Observer of Winchester, 
England (November 21, 1914), writes me: 

Pour ce qui concerne la brochure que vous venez de faire parattre a 
Chicago, je ne puis qu'affirmer la haute honorabilit£ des personnes qui ont 
t£moign6, toutes parfaitement connues de moi, ainsi que l'authenticit£ des 
t&noignages et ma profonde conviction de la v£racit£ des faits rapport^s. 

A translation of this follows: 

As for the pamphlet that you recently published in Chicago, I can only 
bear witness to the high standing of the people who testified, all of whom are 
perfectly well known to me, and to the authenticity of their testimony and to 
the fact that I am entirely convinced of the truth of the facts reported. 

2. The Chicago German has further asserted: "You know as 
well as I that the British commission has investigated more than a 
thousand cases and still could find no evidence of German atrocities 
in Belgium." 

To which I reply: The president of that commission is Mr. 
Bryce, former British ambassador to Washington, well known in the 
United States. Some time ago, we read in American newspapers a 
report given out by Mr. Bryce, saying that the commission was stiU 
investigating and that, unfortunately, "the reports on atrocities 
committed in Belgium were only too well substantiated." 

Besides that official British commission, there is in London a 
branch of the Belgian commission of inquiry. That branch is 
presided over by a man of the highest ability, Sir MacKenzie 
Chalmers, K.C.B., former vice-secretary of state for the Home 
Department, former member of the Council of India. After the 
witnesses had testified before him on oath and had been cross- 
examined, the "Tenth Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry" 
(Le H&vre, January 6, 1915), was issued over his signature. That 

1 A report of the discovery of those victims and of the words uttered by the German 
commander, Ool. Lubbert, has been published by an eyewitness in the Dutch newspaper 

De Tyd, of January 21, 1915. 

3 



report is to be found on pages 117-30 of the Rapports sur la violation 
du droit des gens en Belgigue (Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1915). 

Sir MacKenzie Chalmers vouches therein for the statements: 
(a) that all over Belgium civilians were used as a shield 1 by the 
German troops in order to protect them against the fire of the 
enemy; (6) that a large number of civilians, men, women, and 
children, have been taken as prisoners of war, sent to Germany, and 
there treated in a most shameful manner; (c) that a large proportion 
of these arrested civilians have been shot. 

That there was no reason whatever for these acts is established in 
detail in the aforementioned report. This is substantially what the 
British Commission and the British president of a branch of the 
Belgian Commission have so far stated about the atrocities in 
Belgium. 

3. As to the reports of the Belgian Commission, it has been said by 
the defenders of the German cause that they have no value, as being 
clearly biased and one-sided. That is not the fault of the Belgian 
government; it is due to the German government, and the German 
commanders in Belgium. 

Indeed (a) the Belgian government never refused a hearing to 
the other side in respect to the accusations against the German 
troops. Moreover, it authorized the Belgian newspapers to declare 
that it was ready to co-operate in the organization of an international 
commission of inquiry, composed of delegates of non-belligerent 
nations. The German government made no reply to that proposal. 

(6) Formal proposals made by the Belgians to some of the lead- 
ing Germans were rejected. The Belgian Socialists proposed to 
the German Socialists Noske, Wendel, and Koster, on their visit in 
Brussels, to take up with them a counter-inquiry. The German 
deputies refused. 

(c) M. Charles Magnette, senator for Ltege and Grand Master 
of Belgian Freemasons, proposed to the Masonic lodges of Germany 
to organize a commission of inquiry, the members to consist of 
Freemasons from neutral countries, to which were to be added a 
German and a Belgian Freemason. That proposal was unequivocally 
rejected by Herr Wilhelm Suss, in a letter dated at Darmstadt, 
September 27, 1914, and by the Grand Lodge "Zur Sonne" of 

i The Germans themselves admit it, as is shown by an extract of a report of a Ger- 
man officer, reproduced in Bidier, Lea Crimea allemands d'apria lea Umoi gnagea allemanda 
pp. 20-21. 

4 



Amputated hand of the Belgian soldier, Theophile Levant, 01 the 5th Lancers, wounded in the 
liattle of Alost (September 27) by a German expanding bullet. Tbe amputation was effected by 
Drs. Van de Velde. Neirynck and De Bruyker on tbe 27th ol September, at 8 o'clock p.m. 



Bayreuth. Both replied that it would be an insult to the German 

troops to admit the possibility of their committing atrocities! None 

of the other seven lodges to which M. Magnette sent his proposal 

ever replied. 

4. A very recent proof of the fact that the Germans do not like 

to be confronted with evidence of atrocities charged against their 

troops is to be found in the following letters, passing between Cardinal 

Mercier and the German Col. Wengersky, district-commander at 

Malines: 

Maunes, le 20-1-1915 
Jrn. Nr. 268/11 

A Son Eminence le cardinal-archeveque de Malines: 

D'apr&s une note parue dans un journal, de nombreux pr&tres auraient 
6t6 tu&, quoique innocents, dans le dioc&se de Malines. 

Pour pouvoir commencer une enquSte, je prie Votre Eminence de bien 
vouloir me communiquer si des pr&tres ont 6t6 tu&, quoique innocents, et 
quels pr&res ont 6t6 tu&. 

Je desire beaucoup apprendre dans quelles circpnstances ces faits se 

seraient produits, quelles troupes peuvent 6tre mises en cause 6ventuellement 

et a quelles dates les 6v6nements se seraient produits. 

Le chef de district 

(s.) Wengersky 

Colonel 
[Translation] 

Malines, 20-1-1915 
Jrn. Nr. 268/11 

To His Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop of Malines: 

According to a note published in a newspaper, numerous priests have 

been killed, although innocent, in the diocese of Malines. 

For the purpose of enabling me to begin an investigation, I beg Your 

Eminence to be so kind as to inform me whether priests have been killed, 

although innocent, and if so, what priests have been killed. 

I wish very much to know under what circumstances such events 

occurred, what troops can be charged eventually with responsibility for the 

acts, and on what dates the events took place. 

The district-commander 

(s.) Wengersky 

Colonel 

To that letter, which he received on the 24th of January, Cardinal 

Mercier replied: 

Archeveche de Maunes 

le 24 Janvier 1915 
Monsieur le Kreischef: 

J'ai Fhonneur de vous accuser reception de la lettre 268/11, dat£e du 20 

Janvier, que vous avez bien voulu me faire parvenir. 

5 



Le noma des pr&tres et des religieux du diocese de Malines qui, a ma 
connais8ance, ont 6t6 mis a mort par les troupes allemandes sont les suivants: 
Dupierreux, de la Compagnie de J6sus; les fr&res S£bastien et Albert, de la 
Congregation des Joslphistes; le fr&re Candide, de la Congregation des fr&res 
de la MisSricorde; le p&re Maximin, capucin; le p&re Vincent, con vent uel; 
Carette, professeur; Lombaerts, Goris, De Clerck, Dergent, Wouters, Van 
Bladel, curds. 

A la date de Noel, lorsque je pubHai ma Lettre pastorale, je ne savais pas 
encore avec certitude quel sort avait subi le cur6 de H&ent; depuis lore, son 
cadavre a 6t6 retrouvd a Louvain et identify. 

D'autres chiffres cit£s dans ma Lettre pastorale devraient 6tre aujourd'hui 
majords; ainsi pour Aerschot, j'avais donn£ le chiffre de 91 victimes; or, le 
total des Aerschotois d&errGs s'&evait, il y a quelques jours, au chiffre de 
143. Mais le moment n'est pas venu d'appuyer sur ces faits particuliers. 
Leur relation trouvera place dans l'enqu&te que vous me faites esp&er. 

Ce me sera une consolation de voir la pleine lumfere se f aire sur les 6v6ne- 
ments que j'ai du rappeler dans ma Lettre pastorale et sur d'autres du m&me 
ordre. 

Mais il est essentiel que les r&ultats de cette enquSte apparaissent a 
tous avec une indiscutable autorit£. 

A cet effet, j'ai l'honneur de vous proposer, monsieur le comte, et de pro- 
poser par votre obligeante entremise aux Autorit6s allemandes que la com- 
mission d'enqu&te soit compos4e, en parties 6gales, de d616guds allemands et 
de magistrats beiges, et pr£sid£e par le reprdsentant d'un pays neutre. Je 
me plais a penser que Son Excellence M. le ministre des Etats-Unis ne 
refuserait pas d'accepter cette pr&idence ou de la confier a un d£16gu£ de son 
choix. 

Agrlez, je vous prie, monsieur le Kreischef, les assurances de ma haute 

consideration. 

D. J. Card. Mebcieb, 

Arch, de Malines 

Translation] 

Archbishopric of Malines 

January 24, 1915 
Sir Kreischef: 

I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter 268/11, dated 
January 20, that you were so kind as to send me. 

The names of the priests and monks of the diocese of Malines who, to 
my knowledge, were killed by the German troops, are: Dupierreux, of 
the Society of Jesus, 1 Brothers Sebastian and Albert, of the Order of St. 
Joseph; Brother Candide, of the Congregation of the Brothers of Mercy; 
Fr. Maximin, a Capucin; Brother Vincent, a conventual; Carette, a teacher; 
Lombaerts, Goris, De Clerck, Dergent, Wouters, Van Bladel, parish 
priests. 

* See the report of his death In my pamphlet, A Statement about the Destruction of 
Louvain, p. 21. 

6 



On Christmas Day, when I published my Pastoral Letter, I did not 
know with certainty what had been the fate of the parish priest of Herent; 
since then his dead body has been discovered at Louvain and identified. 

Other figures given in my Pastoral Letter would have to be increased at 
this time: for instance, for Aerschot, I gave the number of 91 victims. But 
the total number of the dead citizens of Aerschot discovered amounted, some 
days ago, to 143. However, the time has not yet come when we may rely 
upon those details. An account of them will be given a place in the inquiry 
for which you lead me to hope. 

It will be a consolation to me to have light thrown on the events I felt 
compelled to mention in my Pastoral Letter, as well as on others of the same 
kind. But it is essential that the results of that inquiry should be made 
public, supported by the most indisputable authority. 

To this end, I have the honor, therefore to propose to you, Count, and 
through your kind agency to propose also to the German authorities, that 
the commission of inquiry should be composed equally of German delegates 
and Belgian magistrates, and presided over by the representative of a neutral 
country. I am glad to think that His Excellency the ambassador of the 
United States would not refuse to accept the presidency or to assign it to a 
delegate chosen by him. 

Accept, Sir Ereischef , the assurance of my high esteem. 

D. J. Card. Mercies 

Archb. of M alines 

To that proposal, made on January 24, Cardinal Mercier never 
received any reply. 

It seems clear then that the German government and the German 
officers in Belgium do not approve of the establishment of a neutral 
and impartial court, at least at this time, and it seems equally clear 
that, if there is one-sidedness in the Belgian reports, neither the 
Belgian government nor the Belgians are to be blamed for it. 

5. Finally, the German who attacked my "Statement" said: 
"What about the testimony of Dr. Coenrad, vice-regent of the Uni- 
versity of Louvain? You remember, do you not, that he was one of 
the hostages and that he walked the streets of Louvain, on August 25 
for more than five hours in company with Father Dillen and the 
Belgian former minister to Roumania, begging the people to cease 
firing (sic!) or the German guard would shoot the hostages. Dr. 
Coenrad states: 'There is no doubt in my mind that the German 
soldiers were ruthlessly fired upon .... the shots which I heard 
for at least five minutes [he speaks of the beginning of the firing in 
Louvain] were not those of German guns.' " 

7 



To that alleged testimony of Mgr. Coenraets (and not Dr. 
Coenrad) I had only one reply to make: "That statement attributed 
to our vice-rector is a German forgery. 11 So I made it. It was a 
sweeping reply, but at that time I could not say more. I remem- 
bered quite well that such a statement was attributed to Mgr. 
Coenraets, at the end of August, 1914, in the German newspapers, 
and that shortly afterward our Belgian newspapers printed a reply 
from Mgr. Coenraets, saying that "he never gave out a statement 
of that kind. ,, I remembered, too, that in his denial, Mgr. Coenraets 
added that, when he was led through the streets of Louvain, sur- 
rounded by German soldiers, he did not see one civilian firing. 

I could have replied by quoting that statement. But I did not 
remember whether the Belgian newspapers which quoted the denial 
of Mgr. Coenraets were the M6tropole and the Bien Public or others, 
and I could not remember the exact date on which those papers pub- 
lished the denial. 

As a historian, I did not dare, under such circumstances, to quote 
those newspapers without being sure of their names and date. So I 
contented myself with the statement that the words attributed to 
our vice-rector were a German forgery. 

Since then, I discovered the whereabouts of Mgr. Coenraets: he 
is staying in Heerlen (Dutch Limburg) as a refugee. I sent him the 
text of the quotation that was attributed to him and I received, by 
cablegram, the following reply: 

Heerlen, March 25 

D6j& donn£ dementi formel journaux beiges 

Coenraets 

which, translated, means: "I have already sent formal denials to 
Belgian newspapers. Coenraets." 

In order that no one should entertain any doubt about the 
authenticity of that reply, I present herewith a photographic fac- 
simile of the cablegram. The question is thus settled. Mgr. 
Coenraets, vice-rector of the University of Louvain, never stated 
that he saw the civilians of Louvain firing on German troops, and he 
sent a formal denial to the Belgian newspapers when the Germans 
in August, 1914, attributed to him the words quoted above. I had 
thus the right to say that the statement used by my German critic 
was a German forgery. 

8 



That is not all. Just as an alleged report of Mgr. Coenraets 
was used here in Chicago, in the same way an alleged report of the 
Dominican Fathers of Louvain was used by a professor of Freiburg. 
That professor was a German, named J. Partsch. He related in his 
own manner the events which occurred at Louvain and, in support of 
his accusations, appealed to the testimony of the Dominican Fathers 
of Louvain. That maneuver did not succeed, for M. Jean Bary, 



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director of the Belgian newspaper La Flandre lib&rale, of Ghent, 
some time after the paper had suspended publication on account 
of the German occupation, received a letter to the following effect: 

Louvain, le 30 novembre 1914 
Monsieur le EMacteur en Chef: 

L'un des premiers jours d'octobre La Flandre lib&rale a communique k 
ses lecteurs une lettre de M. J. Partsch, professeur k Fribourg, relatant k sa 
fagon les malheureux 6v6nements survenus k Louvain les 25, 26 et 27 aout. 
Dans une parenth&se il invoque k l'appui d'assertions que nous estimons 
absolument inexactes, le t&noignage des Dominicains de Louvain. 

Comme d'autres messieurs, il veut faire passer les Dominicains comme 
ayant affirm^ que les civils ont tir6 sur les troupes allemandes, ce qui aurait 
provoqu6 les terribles repr&ailles dont la ville a souffert. 

Ayant 6t6, seul des Dominicains, m§16 activement et de fa$on cons^quente 
aux 6v6nements des jours susdits, j'estime de mon devoir de donner un 
dementi formel k M. J. Partsch et d'avertir le public que ni moi, ni aucun 
Dominicain de Louvain ne peut &tre cit6 en t&noin du fait que les civils ont 

9 



tir6 sur les soldats allemands. D'ailleurs nous ne croyons pas que ce fait se 
soit produit. J'ai personellement d6clar6 sous la foi du serment devant le 
juge d'instruction allemand que je n'ai aucune preuve d'un tel fait. Tous les 
Dominicains de Louvain sont dans le m&ne cas, pr6ts a en rendre t&noignage. 

(s.) Pere Fr. Hyac. M. Pabys 
Sous-prieur des Dominicains. 

which translated, means: 

Louvain, November 30th, 1914 
To the Editor-in-Chief: 

On one of the first days of October, the Flandre libirale published a letter 
of M. J. Partsch, professor in Freiburg, reporting in his own manner the 
unhappy events occurring in Louvain on August 25, 26, and 27. In 
support of assertions which we believe to be absolutely incorrect, he 
appeals parenthetically to the testimony of the Dominican Fathers of 
Louvain. As others have done, he tries to represent the Dominican Fathers 
as having declared that the civilians fired on the German troops, and that 
this provoked the terrible reprisals from which the city suffered. 

As I am the only one of the Dominican Fathers who took an active and 
consequent part in the events of the days in question, I think it my duty to 
oppose a formal denial to M. J. Partsch and to warn the public that neither I 
nor any of the Dominican Fathers of Louvain may be quoted as a witness to 
the fact that the civilians fired on the German troops. Moreover we do 
not believe that such a thing occurred. I personally declared on oath 
before the German judge of inquiry that I did not see one citizen of Louvain 
firing on the soldiers and that I have no proof of such a fact. All the Domini- 
can Fathers of Louvain are of the same mind, ready to bear witness to it. 

(s.) Father Fr. Hyac. M. Parys 
Vice-prior of the Dominican Fathers 

Finally, concerning the destruction of Louvain, we have not only 
the reports of the eyewitnesses I quoted in my former pamphlet and 
of many others, but we have, too, the statement of a neutral eye- 
witness, a Dutchman. That eyewitness is L. H. Grondys, former 
professor at the technical school at Dordrecht (Holland). He went 
to Belgium in order to investigate whether there was any truth in 
the alleged German atrocities. He happened to stay in Louvain 
during the destruction of the town, and he kept a diary of the events, 
which he quoted day after day. Recently, in the interests of justice, 
he published his diary under the title: Les AUemands en Belgique. 
Louvain et AerschoL Notes d 9 un t6moin hoUandais (Paris, Librairie 
militaire Berger-Levrault, Rue des Beaux-arts, 5-7. A pamphlet of 
123 pages. 12 cents). 

10 



Everyone who reads that testimony of a neutral and impartial 
eyewitness and compares it with my Statement about the Destruction of 
Louvain will see that M. Grondys' report confirms point by point 
the statement I published. He will see the testimony of Professor 
Noel, concerning the girl who was violated and then stabbed by 
bayonets, confirmed; he will see that the inhabitants did all that 
was possible to satisfy the invaders; he will see how the destruction 
began; he will read how the Church of St. Peter was intentionally 
set on fire; how women were taken by the soldiers out of their homes 
during the night and abducted to the country in the darkness; he 
will read of the wholesale shooting of innocent civilians; he will see 
the proof that no investigation was made in order to learn whether 
the civilians really fired on the troops; and he will find much of 
interest in chapter v, dealing with the reason for the destruction of 
Louvain. And finally, after having seen my report on the murder of 
Fr. Dupierreux completely confirmed, he cannot but close the booklet 
as much disgusted as was the Dutch eyewitness himself when he left 
unhappy and devastated Belgium. 

It has been said, too, that if atrocities were committed, they 
were very rare and ought to be regarded as excesses committed by 
individual soldiers. The wholesale shooting of civilians at Louvain 
shows that it was more than mere excesses committed by individual 
soldiers. I have not the list of the victims of Louvain, but I said 
in my statement that up to the 8th of September 42 dead bodies 
were found in the ruins of the houses. At the end of January, 
29 other dead bodies were discovered in the park in front of the 
station. But the complete list of the victims must be very much 
larger, as Mme Nicaud alone saw at least 50 men shot in the Rue 
de la Station. Those victims were shot without any trial, as is 
demonstrated by the report of M. Grondys and the reports of my 
colleagues. 

What is to be understood by "wholesale shooting ,, of civilians? 
At Dinant, the town was sacked by the German army on August 21, 
22, 23, 24, and 25, 1914. The whole town was set on fire, the houses 
looted, and 1,400 out of 1,600 buildings destroyed. A Dutch corre- 
spondent of the TeUgraaf, who was on the spot, counted 800 civilians 
killed (Telegraaf, December 8, 1914). Just as at Louvain, the 
massacre of Dinant was carried out, not during or after a battle, but 
after some days of peaceful occupation. 

11 



The official list of the citizens who were killed gives only 612 
victims who were identified. Among them are: 

25 old men above sixty-four years of age: Edmond Manteaux, 71; 
Gustave Nicaise, 77; L6on Nicaise, 75; Fflix Simonet, 73; Julien 
Disy, 68; Jules Jacquet, 65; Pi&ard Soume, 67; Alexandre Georges, 
67; Emile d'Arr&s, 67; Auguste Mathieu, 67; Francois Fastrez, 68; 
Jules Seghin, 68; C61estinBon, 65; Charles Rouffiange, 68; Fflicien 
Genot, 65; Henri Georges, 68; Charles Bietlot, 76; Collard, 70; 
Victor Demacle, 69 ; Leopold Gonze, 66; Eug&ne Lahaye, 67; Alfred 
Gilain, 64; Emile Coupienne, 64; Jules Monard, 70; Couillard, 70; 
Bouchat, 70. 

Murdered women: Mme Stevaux, 75 years; Marsigny, 23; Thon- 
on, Jadot, 80; Chabottier, 80; Delaete, Morelle, Anciaux, the widow 
Joris, Rasneu, Adrienne Piette, 74; the widow Jacquet; L^opoldine 
Monin, Pauline Fonder, 18; Josephine Lion, Eloise Boby, 23; Adfele 
Bovy, 28; Marie Defayse, Marie Schram; Mme Jules Materne; the 
widow H&ienne; Marie Pinsmaille; her daughter; Marie Minet; 
Nelly Rodrique; Odille Fastr&s; Jeanne Bourdon; Henriette 
Poncelet; Mme B&emps; Marie Martin, Clo tilde Bourguignon; 
Mme Kinique; Martha Neaujot; Marie Paquet; Marie Diskeuve; 
Mme Paulet; Louise Paulet; the widow Javaux; Henriette Martin; 
Louise Kinique, 18; Mme Collard, 83; Eug&rie Paullet; Gilda 
Genon; Nelly Paulet; Gilda Marchot; Ren6e Dufrenne; Mme 
Bultot; Victorine Delimoy; Mme Toussaint; L&mie Bultot; Mme 
Joseph Gu6ry; Jeanne Lempereur; Marie Gufry; the widow Even, 
75; Georgette and Anna Charlier; Charlotte Laloux; Mme Florin; 
C61ine Toussaint; Th6r6seDulieu; MmeMeura; the three daughters 
ofMeura; Marguerite Gustin; the daughter of Cajot; Mme Dauphin; 
Henrietta Roulin; Germaine Roulin; Juliette Herman. 

Murdered boys and babies: Joseph Firmin, 16; Jules Vinstock, 15; 
L6on Colle, 16; Georges Collignon, 16; Vital Sorfe, 15; Maurice 
Broucoux, 16; EugSne Deloge, 15; Edmond Thibaut, 15; Alphonse 
Monin, 15; Louis Chabottier, 15; Marcel Hennuy, 15; Ren6 
Mouton, 15; Georges Delacy, 14; Emile Neppe, 15; Constant 
Migestte, 15; Georges Zwolden, 14; Eug&ne Goffin, 15; Jules 
Gaudinne, 16; Marcel Fonder, 15; Benjamin Louys, 15; Louis 
Ferret, 15; Ren6 Dupont, 10; the son of Boudon, 16; the daughter 
of Boudon, 13; Kinique, 11; Claire Struvay, 2J; Marcel Bovy, 5; 
Felix Balleux, 20 months; F61ix Fivet, 3 weeks; Joseph Dupont, 8; 

12 



Jean Rodrique, 6 months; X. B6temps, 2J; Edmond Bourguignon, 
1 or \\\ Edmond Gustin, 3; Norbert Bultot, 2$; Michan, 1. 

Entire families wiped out: M. Alardeau and his 3 sons; M. Servais 
and his 3 sons; M. Brignon, his 2 brothers-in-law, and his father-in- 
law; the 3 sons of M. Malaise and his son-in-law; M. Morelle, his 
wife, his 2 children, his mother-in-law, his sister-in-law; 4 members 
of the family of Meura; 4 of the family of Dauphin; 4 of the family 
of Bouvy; 3 of the families of Schram, Delage, Lion, Beaujot, etc. 

That is only the score for one Belgian city: Dinant. Is there 
any American ready to believe that the old men, the women, and the 
babies had endangered the security of the German army? Were 
they all snipers ? 

And, in order to show that the "wholesale shooting" of civilians 
did not occur in Louvain and Dinant alone, I give here the list of 
victims, killed in the town square of the little town of Tamines, 
between Namur and Charleroi. I call attention to the fact that 11 
women are among the victims and that whole families have been 
wiped out. 

Victor Albert; Alexis Alexis; Emile Bruy&re; Jules Boutefeu; 
Edmond Bierlaire; Alfred Bodart; Emile Bodart; L6on Bodart, Sr.; 
L6on Bodart, Jr.; Z6phirin Bodart; Joseph Bruart; Adrien Baudry; 
Jules Bily; Adolphe Blistin; Leonard Bonnet; Jean Ch. Bogaerts; 
Ferd. Burniat; Maurice Burniat; Ephrem Btelande; Victor Barbier; 
Jacques Bette; Jules Benoit; Achille Bodart; Ernest Bleus; Augusta 
Bauwens; Jean B. Bauloye; Victor Chenal; Bononi Culot; Emile 
Collin; F61ix C16ment; Isidore Clamot; Antoine Cavalier; Alex. 
Cabouy; Alex. Clause; 'Gustave Carette; Alphonse Couvreur; 
Aline Cobut; J. B. Cobut; Jean Claes; Marie Colgmhemener; 
J. B. Copeau; Eug. Croisier; Jules Debauche; Camille Dupont; 
Jules Delcharlerie; Oscar Dessy; Joach. Delvigne; Jean Ph. 
Delvigne; Sim&m Delvigne; Marcel Dautrebande; Victor Duchemin; 
Louis Demoulin; Hubert Demoulin; J. B. Demoulin; Jules Demou- 
lin; Gustave Demoulin; Prosper Dury; Olivier Dambremont; 
Joseph Denis; Gustave Devillers; Emile Delatte; Riche Delfosse; 
Charles Decocq; Jules Damar; Franz Denis; Martin Delpeuch; 
Henri Desguin; Laurent Dumont; Joseph Debry; Hubert Devillez; 
Georges Devillez; Robert Devillez; L£on Duvivier; Constant 
Dogot; Gustave Docq; Adrien Docq; Gustave Delaitte; Omer 
Demaret; Georges Desoete; Louis Defaux; Emile Descamps; 

13 



Leopold Detreau; Arthur Debloq; Jules Delsauveni&re; J. B. 
Deschamps (Spouse); Leopold Defays; Octave Daiflfe; Joseph 
Dauchot; Flor. Dotreppe; Fern. Damar; Fern. Defays; J. B. 
Doucet; Edouard Dubois; Em. Evrard; Aug. Fooz; Arthur 
Fruchard; Arth. Fauvelle; Jules Fondu; L6op. Fievet; Jos. Fievet; 



Jules Foulon 
Eug. Falque 
J. B. Gilbert 



Charles Fr&l&ic; Jos. For'homme; Fanuel (ern.); 

Cam. Fontaine; Louis Guillaume; Jos. Golli&re; 

Antoine Gilbert; Roger Gilbert; Jos. Goffin; Louis 
Goffin; Francois Genevrois; J. B. Grodent; J. B. Gaspard; Achille 
Gaspard; Francois Gilson; Joseph Gilson, Sr.; Joseph Gilson, Jr.; 
Adelin Gilson; Camille Gilson; Jean Gr6goire; Finnin Glime; Alidor 
Glime; Joseph Gilles; Olivier Gaziaux; Emile Gaziaux; Aug. 
Greepont (Spouse); Louis Gossiaux; Fortun6 Grosfils; Georges Gros- 
fils; Flore Garot; Constant Gueubelle; Adolphe Gosset; Rd. Cur6 
Hottlet; F61icien Hocq; Z6phir. Henin, Sr.; Z6phir. Henin, Jr.; 
AUdor Hanoulle; Jean Huybrechts; Alph. Huybrechts; Frangois 
Huybrechts; Jules Haz6e; Eug&ne Hucq; J. B. Henin; Max. 
Hubeau; Jules Hubeau; Florent Henry; Aug. Hennion; Alex. 
Hittelet; Gustave Hansotte; Celine Humbrecht; Alphonse Hellen; 
Justin Hesmans; Nestor Hiernaux; Hamelin; Pierre Haesel; 
F&icien Istasse; Joseph Istasse; Emile Istasse; Alex. Jeantot; 
Jos. Jacquet (Dinant); Jules Javaux; Fernand Jaumain; Joseph 
Jaumain; Vincent Jaumain; Auguste Jaumain; Emile Jaumain; 
Casimir Joaris; Roger Kaisse; Victor Lambert (Fosses); Louis 
Loriaux (p6re); Louis Loriaux (fils); Jules Loriaux; Fernand 
Leseut; Jules Leblanc; Georges Linard; L£on Linard; Justin 
Lemal; Joseph Laurent; L6on Lekief; Elmire Lefevre; Lucien 
Ledoux; Eugfene Ledoux; Louis Ledoux; Joseph Ledoux; S6bas- 
tien Ledoux; Georges Ledoux; Joseph Lambert; Alexis Lison; 
Louis Legrand; Remi Lorand; Edouard Lecaille; Ferd. Lambotte; 
Dieudonn6 Laporte; Lucien Lannoy; L6on Lannoy; Marie-Louise 
Leonard; Gabrielle Leclerq; Alex. Ladrille; Hubert Liquens; 
Hubert Laviolette; Achilles Leroy; D6sir6 Lorette; Fernand 
Ledoux; Anatole Mathieu; Adrien Milquet; Alfred Minon; Gus- 
tave Mollet; Joseph Massart; Fernand Massart; Antoine Melchior; 
Ars&ne Melchior; Louis Melchior; Emile Melchior; Antoine 
Malotteau; L6on Malotteau; Nestor Mollet; Joseph Mollet; 
Francois Massart; Pierre Moreau; Arthur Moreau; OrbanMoreau; 
J6r6me Modave; Emile Materne (pfere); Emile Materne (fils); 

14 



Leonard Materne; Geouges Monyard; Fernand Monyard; Auguste 
Monyard; Cr6pin Marin; Albert Mouton; L6op. Mouthuy; Fois 
Jos. Martin; Jules Michaux; Joseph Matagne; Florent Moussiaux 
Jules Moussiaux; .Marcel Mombeek; Mombeek (Spouse); Frans 
Moussiaux; Jules Maniet; Camille Nalinne; Henri Nalinne 
D6sir6 Noel; Emile Nam&che; Oscar Nam&che; Pierre Nam&che 
Joseph Noel; Alexandre Notte; Fflicien Piette; Joseph Patris 
Joseph Patriarche; Alfred Pirmez; Marcel Pirmez; No€l Patris 
Hubert Philappart; Joseph Philappart; Eug&ne Pochet; Joseph 
Poncin; Sylvain Piette; Paul Pfepin; Cornelius Pelsmaeckers 
Pierre Pelsmaeckers; Jules Pietquin; Joseph Piette; Leopold 
Permiganaux; Jules Quinart; Constant Renard; Jules Reman 
Lucien Reman; Francois Reichel; Hippolite Robert; Albin Robert 
Arsfene Robert; Marcel Robert; Emile Robert; Hubert Rousselle 
Louis Rousselle; Lison Alfr. Robert; Norbert Raphael; Xavier 
Robert; Fortun6 Robette; Narcisse Rondia; Hector Roquet 
Joseph Rosart; Emile Renard; Roily; Rochet; Joseph Sevrin 
Edgard Sevrin; Ferdinand Sevrin; Emile Sevrin; Achille Sevrin 
Denis Sevrin; J. B. Sevrin; Justin Sevrin; Emile Steinier; J. B 
Steinier; Florent Steinier; Louis Steinier; Frangois Steinier 
Camille Steenbeeke; Alex Stasse; Ern. Sottiau; Joseph Schokaert 
Jos. Salmon; Jos. Steenwit; Louis Stimart; Victor Seressia; Seghin 
(Spouse); Camille Seghin; D. Schlit; Emile Thibaut; Louis 
Thibaut; L6op. Thibaut; Jos. Thibaut; Arthur Thibaut; Ern. 
Thibaut; Jean Thibaut; Louis Thibaut; Louis Thibaut; Henri 
Tourneur; Leopold Thomas; Ernest Tilquin; Va. Thiry; Emile 
Thirion; J. Vandeloise; Louis Vandenborne; Jean-Louis Vers- 
choren; Jules Van Hoeck; Paul Van Hoeck; Jules Van Hoeck, Jr.; 
Joseph Van Osterwyck; Louis Vigneron; Dr6 Vigneron; J. B. 
Vigneron; Jean Vets; Henri Verhaegen; Edouard Van der Roost; 
Frans Verbruggen; Frangois Wouters; Octavien Wartique; Arm. 
Wiame; Emile Wartique; F61ix Wouters; Albert Warmer. 

Even if there had been snipers among those men — which is not 

the case, according to the testimony of Mr. L , who escaped, 

and according to the testimony of an engineer, Mr. D , who 

was wounded but escaped by swimming across the river Sambre — 
the fearful massacre of those 348 civilians is contrary to the Hague 
Convention, which says (sec. 3, Art. 1): "No general penalty, 
pecuniary or otherwise, can be inflicted on the population on account 

15 



of the acts of individuals, for which it cannot be regarded as col- 
lectively responsible." 

I have presented the preceding documents and facts in order to 
show that the attempt to throw suspicion on my former "Statement" 
is inconsistent and that, when I say that something is a forgery, I 
can prove it. 

Note. — While the foregoing was in the printers' hands I received 

from Mgr. Coenraets the following letter: 

Le 26 mars 1915 
Mon cher Collegue: 

Comme suite au cablogramme que je vous ai adress6 hier, je vous trans- 
mets la copie du d&nenti que j'ai fait insurer, le 8 Septembre, dans les 
journeaux hollandais et plus tard dans les journeaux beiges que j'ai pu 
atteindre: 

"Uw nummer van Zaturdag 5 Sept. zou de lezers in den waan kunnen 
brengen dat, volgens myn getuigenis, Leuvensche burgers op Duitsche soldaten 
geschoten hebben. 

"U zult my ten goede houden dat ik by dezen openlyk en met nadruk 
verklaar in het geheel niet te weten van wie de enkele schoten kwamen die 
ik slechts van uit de verte hoorde en die zeker op de my vergezellende soldaten 
niet waren gericht. 

"Van een schieten door ook slechts een enkelen Leuvenschen burger is my 

volstrekt niets bekend." 

Hoogachtend, 

E. Coenraets 
Vice-red. der Leuvensche Hoogeschool 

I append a translation: 

March 26, 1915 
My dear Colleague: 

Following the cablegram I sent to you yesterday, I communicate to you 
the transcript of the denial I sent, on September 8, to the Dutch newspapers 
and later on to the Belgian newspapers I was able to reach. 

"Your copy of Saturday, September 5, might induce your readers to 
believe that, according to my testimony, civilians of Louvain have fired on the 
German soldiers. 

"You will permit me to declare hereby publicly and emphatically that I 
do not know in what way. or by whom the few shots were fired which I 
heard only in the far-off distance and which surely were not fired at the 
soldiers who surrounded me. 

"I know absolutely nothing about the firing by even one civilian of 
Louvain." 

With high regards, 

E. Coenraets 
V ice-rector of the University of Louvain 

That is the statement of Mgr. Coenraets. 

16 



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